FILTECH 2015 Conference featured 180 technical papers, a Plenary Lecture and 6 Keynote Lectures presented by leading experts. Delegates profited from high-level knowledge transfer and learned about future trends and perspectives!
The global population is project to grow from 7 billion today to 9 billion by 2050. The increase in population and the accompanying shifting global economic patterns will result in a significant increase in demand for food, energy and protection. Separation technology plays a key role in ensuring new solutions are environmentally sustainable. Indeed, existing separation technology has enabled us today to have clean air and water. Nearly every production process in today’s society requires a separation step. As a result, global market in separation technology is growing and is over USD 100 billion† annually. Exactly how should separation research develop in the next decade and beyond? Nowadays technical solutions are available for almost every separation task. However for the future the pressing challenge is to find economical solutions. If the ideal separation technology/process would have been invented, our world would face fewer difficulties for food, water, energy and environment.... learn more at FILTECH 2015
Precoat filtration is a very well-established and proven solid-liquid separation technology and in fact its industrial history goes back to meanwhile more than 100 years. This is why precoat filter systems as well as common precoat filtration aids are very well developed though still constantly optimized. In addition users and operators in countless industrial applications praise precoat filtration for its high efficiency, great flexibility and its versatility.
However, mentioned technology is being increasingly called into question since various alternative technologies are coming up, and since particularly mineral filter aids are meanwhile seen as problematic. Furthermore, an increasing environmental awareness causes users to reconsider their processes in regard to energy consumption and waste disposal.
How are precoat filtration users addressing those questions? Will precoat filtration disappear over time? Or will precoat filtration remain to be a trusted “work-horse” in various industries?
Bioethanol has been increasingly developed in recent years caused by not only the increasing price of fossil fuel but also the climate and environmental concerns. The first generation bio-ethanol concepts were based on sugar and starch plants as feedstock. However, many researchers and engineers have paid more attentions on the use of cellulosic biomass, such as straw, wood, as feedstock to avoid the food competition with human and animals in the second generation. In such processes, the cellulose hydrolysis in saccharification step to produce sugar for ethanol fermentation becomes an important issue on the efficiency and cost of bio-ethanol productions. Cellulose and hemicellulose are degraded to monomeric sugars using cellulase as enzyme. The produced sugars are required to remove from the system for minimizing the product inhibition effects. Suitable membrane separation methods are always highly efficient and effective to achieve such demand due to the accurate selectivity of available membranes. The effects of membrane module, membrane type, membrane pore size, cross-flow velocity and transmembrane pressure on the filtration flux, sugar rejection and sugar mass flux transported to the filtrate are discussed in this study. Some theoretical approaches are used for predicting the separation performance, and optimal operating conditions are recommended. .... learn more at FILTECH 2015
The traditional way of studying filtration properties has been to determine the average specific filtration resistance (e.g. the Ruth equation) and average porosity (or average solidosity). If the solid material forms filter cakes that is only slightly compressible and blinding of the filter medium can be neglected, the average measures are often sufficient and can often be used to scale up laboratory/pilot plant data to industrial scale.
However, if the solid material forms compressible filter cakes it is a great advantage to use local filtration data when scaling up laboratory data to industrial scale. Local data is also necessary in the study of the mechanisms of filtration of material forming compressible filter cakes and is also very useful in troubles shouting (e.g. blinding of filter media).
There has been two pathways for the determination of local filtration properties: direct measurements of local pressure and local solidosity (porosity), and by using the so-called “compression permeability cell” (CP-Cell). Both methods gives data that may be considered as “local”, but the CP-Cell methodology has some drawbacks: e.g. it is doubtful if the packing of the particles will be the same as in a filter cake during the build up of the cake and that it is difficult to eliminate errors related to the boundary between the filter cake and the cell wall. The direct method has of course also some drawbacks: e.g. that the equipment becomes more complicated, that the pressure probes must be placed correct and that the accuracy of the solidosity measurements depends both on the equipment used and the material in the filter cake.
The intention with this talk is to shred some light on how local filtration properties can be measured with the direct methods and what to think about in order to make the measurements as accurate as possible. Furthermore, to give examples on how and why local filtration properties may be used in scale up as well as in trouble shouting...learn more at FILTECH 2015
The FILTECH Conference is a Must for all those concerned with designing, improving, purchasing, selling or researching F&S equipment and services of all industry sectors. Technology and know-how transfer is a main target.
For many years, measuring pore sizes by bubble point and Porometry has been a very convenient method of evaluating the performance of filter media. Although there can be good repeatability within a single laboratory, as the number of manufacturers and models increase, it has become increasingly difficult to compare results in different laboratories, sometimes even when the same model Porometer is used. Furthermore, the technique is an indirect or secondary method relying on theoretical prediction to calculate pore size. The results are therefore not directly traceable to the international standard metre, for example NIST. By contrast, challenge testing is a direct or primary method because the challenging particles that pass the filter can be collected and measured precisely. However, in order to obtain accurate results, it is essential to have an understanding of particle size and shape analysis, otherwise the results could be equally ambivalent. This review will examine the basic principles of particle characterisation relevant to challenge testing filter media so that unambiguous results can be obtained so providing a universal bench mark with which assess the performance of filter media.... Learn more at FILTECH 2015
Recovery of valuable plant and biomass compounds is often linked with the use of environmentally polluting chemical or biological agents. Unfortunately, the "green" solvents, and particularly water at room temperature, are often inadequate for an efficient extraction from plants and biomass feedstockes. Cellular tissue must be initially denatured to become permeable for the intracellular compounds targeted by the extraction. In industry, such tissue denaturation is most often achieved through grinding or a thermal process (e.g., using steam or hot water) and consumes high amounts of energy. Unfortunately, conventional treatments (grinding, heating) currently used in industry to make extractions easier, degrade and disrupt the tissue structure (membranes and cellular walls) in an uncontrollable way. Entirely disrupted tissue loses its selectivity (capacity to sieve) and becomes permeable not just for the target compounds, but also for impurities which also pass into the extract. As a result, the extract is contaminated by auxiliary compounds, which are difficult to separate. Moreover, the purification of extracts may require auxiliary additives to extract/separate impurities by filtration/ purification.
The use of pulsed electric fields (PEF) is a non-thermal treatment of very short duration (from several nanoseconds to several milliseconds) with pulse amplitude from 100-500 V/cm to 20-300 kV/cm. Under the effect of PEF, the biological membrane is electrically pierced and loses its semi-permeability temporarily or permanently. The electrical permeabilisation of biological membranes (called electroporation) may be reversible or irreversible. Lower intensity of PEF treatment leads to partially reversible electroporation of cell membranes. Nowadays electroporation has found applications in many fields of biochemistry, molecular biology, and medicine.
This work reviews recent studies in PEF applications for selective recovery and following filtration and separation of valuable solutes from different feedstocks, bi-products and wastes, and shows industrial perspective of implementation of PEF-assisted separation techniques. Among very promising potential applications of PEF, we present... Learn more at FILTECH 2015
In a nutshell, filtration is cleaning up fluids by removing particles with the help of a porous filter medium. What does that mean for simulation? It starts with fluid dynamics but adds a second phase of particles/droplets. How to model particle collection? The classical approach is based on a single fiber in a unit cell. But, what about real filter media? Despite the fact, that new (XCT) imaging technology unveils the 3D fibrous design of real filter media, it is still a computational and modeling challenge and duration might be long. How to speed it up? Switching the scale and moving from resolving single fibers to modeling the filter medium as a homogenized porous material. What does that mean for realistic simulation results? A smart way of linking scales is needed. Looking at products, how to deal with pleated filter media? Again multi-physics come into play, as it requires structural mechanics and best a two-way coupling. What about …?
The keynote will try to provide some answers by giving an overview of the evolution of simulation methods for filtration. In general the lecture will demonstrate that simulation of filtration continues to be a fascinating and still evolving multi-scale and multi-physics challenge. But simulation is no longer a pure academic tool. It has become an indispensable part of the modern product development.... learn more at FILTECH 2015
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